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Growing Rice and a Cholera Vaccine at the Same Time
This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.

Someday, rice (1) might not only provide food but also a way to prevent cholera and other (2) .
Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. Today it is found mostly in (3), Asia and Latin America. Current (4) to protect against cholera must be kept in cold storage. The need for refrigeration limits use in poor (5).

But research in Japan may lead to rice plants that contain a cholera vaccine that does not need to be kept (6). So far, the research has been carried out only on (7). The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States published the study (8) this month.

Hiroshi Kiyono of the University of Tokyo and his team experimented with genetic (9) from the (10) responsible for cholera. They placed it into the Kitaake rice plant.

Mice ate the genetically changed rice (11) as a powder. The report says the vaccine was not (12) by stomach acid; instead, the (13) developed antibodies against the cholera toxin. The scientists say the vaccine remained (14) even after being stored at room (15) for more than a year and a half.

People would take the vaccine as a (16) that contains the powder.

Cholera is usually spread through (17) or food, in places where conditions are (18) and drinking water supplies are (19). Cholera infections are often (20). But some people develop severe cases. The World Health Organization says half of them will (21) if they are not treated.

The researchers say the experimental cholera vaccine produced reactions in the immune system and in (22) of mucosal tissue. Mucosal surfaces include the mouth, (23) and reproductive (24). Cholera as well as (25) like those that cause influenza and AIDS infect these areas.

The (26) have great hopes for rice-based vaccines as a way to protect large populations against mucosal infections. There would be no need for injection, since the vaccine would be taken by (27).

Yet scientists have tried for some time to make plant-based vaccines. Researchers in the United States have developed one for Newcastle disease in (28), but so far there are no (29) for humans. At the same time, scientists have to deal with concerns about genetically engineered plants accidentally mixing with food (30).

And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson.

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Một số từ mới trong bài:

Cholera /´kɔlərə/ (N) : (y học) bệnh dịch tả, bệnh tả

Infection/in'fekʃn/ (N): Sự nhiễm, Bệnh lây nhiễm, Ảnh hưởng lan truyền

Intestine/in´testin/ (N): (giải phẫu) ruột

- small intestine: ruột non

- large intestine: ruột già

Proceedings (N): tập công trình nghiên cứu, tập biên chuyên đề; biên bản lưu (của cuộc họp)

Powder/'paudə/ (N): bột, bụi. phấn

Severe/səˈvɪər/ (a) : nặng, nguy hiểm, dữ dội

Immune system/i´mju:n 'sistim/: hệ thống miễn dịch

Mucosal: thuộc niêm mạc

Influenza/¸influ´enzə/ (N): bệnh cúm

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Tuyen Thanh
đăng lúc 02:31 - 19/09/2016


đăng lúc 08:36 - 23/04/2016

just 15/30 :̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣̣(

đăng lúc 00:49 - 13/12/2015

This lesson is really hard for me!!!! :((((