Bài 1: Mạo từ trong tiếng Anh (Indefinite and Definite Articles in English)
- Bài 2: Thì hiện tại đơn (Present simple tense)
- Bài 3: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 1 (Present perfect - part 1)
- Bài 4: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 2 (Present perfect - part 2)
- Bài 5: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 3 (Present perfect - part 3)
- Bài 6: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 4 (Present perfect - part 4)
- Bài 7: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 5 (The Present perfect - part 5)
- Bài 8: : Phrasal verbs
- Bài 9: The structure of phrasal verbs
- Bài 10: Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn (The present continuous tense)
- Bài 11: Danh từ đếm được và không đếm được (Countable and uncountable nouns)
Topic: An introduction to articles
This is the lesson in two parts
Part one learning the rules.
Do you know what a knick – knack is?
I‘ll bet you have a knick – knack and you don’t even know it.
A Knick – knack is a small decoration
It’s an object we use just for show
Some people call knick - knacks dust collectors because these objects just sit and collect dust
I have a lot of knick – knacks
And I keep some of them right here on my bookshelf
I’m going to show you a few
This is a vase
And this is a candle
Here is a doll
And this is a box
Do you know what this is?
It’s a photo cube
And this is an angel.
Let’s first talk about The Indefinite Articles A and An.
We use the articles with singular nouns as in a vase, a box, an angel
Singular nouns are countable nouns
We can count vases
We can count boxes
we can count angels
A singular noun means one thing or person
A vase - one vase. A box - one box. An angel - one angel.
We use an indefinite articles to identify, classify or define a noun by that I mean for naming something or telling what kind of thing it is
If you don’t know what a knick - knack is
I can define it for you.
A knick – knack is a small decoration.
We use indefinite articles to make a general reference – the speaker is not talking about a specific thing or person
This is important to understand indefinite articles are used to make a general reference .
You may wonder why we have choices of two Indefinite articles A and An
It’s hard to do with pronunciation.
We use A before a singular noun that starts with consonant sound as in a candle, a doll.
Candle begins with a consonant sound / k /, candle
.Doll begins with a consonant sound / d /, doll
Now we may have a singular noun or by itself or the noun can be a phrase as in a beautiful doll
We are still talking about one doll, a doll but we have the adjective "beautiful"
Beautiful begins with a consonant sound / b /, beautiful so we need A, a beautiful doll.
Use An before a singular noun that starts with a vowel sound as in an angel
Now look at the next example, Hour.
Hour starts with the letter h but we don’t pronounce the letter H
The first letter that we pronounce are O and U
That's vowel sound. That's why we say an hour not a hour
An hour is correct
Also the noun may appear in noun phrase as in an interesting knick – knack
Interesting begins with vowel sound so we say an interesting knick – knack
We’re going to play a little game now
I’m going to test your memory
Look closely because I want you to remember where all my knick - knacks go
Do you think you can remember?
If you recall, I have a vase, a candle, a doll, and a box, an angel, and a photo cube
Okay, so now the fun part!
Do you remember w here does the box go?
Here, The box goes here… on this shelf.
Do you remember where the candle went?
Up here. The candle goes up here
How about the vase?
Do you remember?
The vase goes up here
How about the photo cube?
It goes here…on that shelf
How about the angel?
The angel went over here
.And the doll?
Did you get them all right?
Let’s begin to talk about how the Indefinite and Definite Articles are different?
A and an are indefinite articles
We often use them before a singular noun the first time we mention it
THE is a definite article
We use it before a singular noun after the first mention
THE makes a noun specific – it is known and understood by the speaker and listener
So one very big difference between indefinite and definite articles is that the definite article “The” is used in specific sense, for specific reference
Note how we have one definite article they can be pronounced two different ways
Pronounce THE as /ðə/ before a consonant sound as in the vase
Pronounce THE as /ði/ before a vowel sound as in the interesting vase
Listen again /ðə/ the vase, /ði/ the interesting vase.
As you know, this is a box
It’s a Russian box
And the lid has a beautiful painting
I’m not sure if you can see it but it’s very beautiful
Note that we use the definite article “The” with the noun that is specific from context which is that mean, it means we use THE even in the first mention of a singular noun if the particular thing or person is known or understood by both the speaker and listener
For example, you heard me say
This is a Russian box
The lid has a beautiful painting
I say "lid" for the first time
I use the definite article “The” the lid
Why? Because you know what I am talking about
You understand which specific lid I’m speaking up
The lid of Russian box . ..
Let me tell you a little bit more about some of the knick – knacks
As I said, this is a vase
.I use the vase for bookmarks .
.I like to collect bookmarks because I like to read
This is a candle
And as you know, candles are made of wax
This candle is special because it has leaves
The leaves were pressed into the wax
Do you see?
I think this is a beautiful doll
I brought it back from Russia
As you can tell by the traditional clothing
By now I hope you have better understanding of Indefinite and Definite Articles but there is the third choice no article
One book, a teacher talk about the zero article it means that no article is used
No article is needed before uncountable nouns used to make general reference
For example, candles are made of wax
Wax is noncount or uncountable noun
We can’t count it
And I’m talking about wax in general
I’m not talking about a specific wax or particular kind of wax
Candles are made of wax.
We also use the zero article before plural nouns again when making a general reference
For example, I use the vase for bookmarks
I’m talking about bookmarks in general
I’m not talking about any particular bookmarks, just bookmarks in a general sense
.I use the vase for bookmarks
Let’s talk a moment about proper nouns
A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing
A proper noun begins with a capital letter, in upper case letter
The zero articles are often used before proper nouns
For example: Jennifer, YouTube, Russia
We don’t say the Jennifer, The YouTube, The Russia
So the zero article is used before people first names, before most companies names as well as before most names of countries
We can add after that cities and states as well
Let's play the memory game one more times
Can you remember where everything went?
I took all the knick – knacks off the shelves
Let’s see if you can remember
How many knick – knacks did I have on the top shelf?
There were two: The candle and The vase
Do you remember how many knick – knacks I had on the next shelf – the second shelf?
.The photo cube went here
The box went here
The doll went over here
And the angel went right there
I would like to explain one more guideline
Some words make a noun specific or unique, meaning one of the kind. There is nothing else like it
.If the noun is specific or unique, we use the definite article The
For example, what was on the top shelf? The next shelf? The second shelf?
Words like top, next, and second make a noun specific
What’s the most interesting object?
A superlative adjectives like the most interesting make a noun unique.
Let ’s review
Here a short exercise to test your understanding
Identify general references
Read the statements of the five highlighted phrases and blue
Three may general references which one are there……
Here they are: A knick – knack, a small decoration and dust collectors.
Identify specific references
Five of the six highlighted phrases are specific
Everything but bookmarks is specific references
Identify countable nouns of the four highlighted phrases to give examples of countable nouns
A photo cube and candles are countable nouns.
Identify proper nouns if you read the three statements and look at the highlighted phrases your find all they want example
The proper noun is Russia
It is written with the zero article
Which uncountable noun is used in a general sense?
Wax in the first sentence is used in a general sense.
Which uncountable noun is used in a specific sense?
Clothing in second sentence is used in a specific sense, the tranditional clothing.
Which noun is specific from context?
Clothing is again the answer
The traditional clothing is the clothing on the doll
We understand from the context which clothing is being talk about